Friday, March 2, 2012

Angel embroidery design

Angel

British Museum, the, report on the
Historical Exhibition at Madrid,
1892, note, 37 ; remarkable em-
broidered panel in, 41 ; two four-
teenth-century panels in the bind-
ing of a Psalter at, 48 ; unusual
example of embroidery in the
book known as Queen Mary's
Psalter, at, 65 ; manuscript in
embroidered binding, supposed
to have been written and worked
by Queen Elizabeth

Clint Eastwood sketch

Clint Eastwood sketch

" Black work," or " Spanish work,"
a style of embroidery said to
have been introduced by Cathe-
rine of Aragon, 70 ; very popular
during the reign of Queen Eliza,
beth, 71, 73 ; jacket or tunic of,
given to Viscountess Falkland by
William IV., Plate xxxv, 70, 78,
79 ; pillow-cover in the posses-
sion of Viscount Falkland, Plate
xxxvii, 74, 79 ; sleeves for a tunic,
Plate xxxviii, 76, 79 ; coverlet
belonging to Viscount Falkland,
79; a portrait of the Earl of
Surrey at Hampton Court, illus-
trating, 80 ; specimens anterior
to Henry VIII. period in several
private collections, ib. \ caps and
head-dresses, ib.

Bono sketch embroidery design

Bono

Copies of oil-paintings in wool-work, such
as were produced by Miss Mary Linwood
(b. 1755, d. 1845) an d Miss Knowles (b. 1733,
d. 1807), "the Quaker, that works the sutile
pictures," * represent the climax of this mis-
taken art.

A single illustration (Plate 60) exemplifies
the extent to which embroidery was used for
the decoration of costume in the eighteenth
century. It is a gentleman's coat, of the
latter half of the century, worked in floss
silks of several colours.

Of the nineteenth century we must say
very little. Taste during the earlier part of
the century was not good. Since then a
revival has set in. Excellent results have
already been attained, and there is good
promise for the future.

The Beatles embroidery designs

The Beatles

Maps of the world, of conti-
nents, or of our own country, often bear
dates as far back as the later years of the
eighteenth century.

The popularity of the sampler appears
to have greatly declined after the first two
or three decades of the nineteenth century.
One sampler* of the earlier part of that
century may be described. Besides the
customary house, with trees, animals, and
birds, it has the quaintly designed figure of
a man in a red coat perhaps an army pen-
sioner. The little embroideress has supplied
the means of identification by working the
following inscription above the figure : " This
is my Dear father."

Roses Bouquet embroidery design

Roses Bouquet

Mary Wakeling's sampler, dated 1742,
bears some doggerel lines, the theme being
that "poor wretched life's short portion flies
away." Ann Woodgate, in 1794, after de-
scribing the inevitable withering of flowers,
concludes that

" Such and so withering are our early joys,
Which time or sickness speedily destroys."

The quotations are sometimes more hap-
pily chosen. Extracts from hymns and from
metrical versions of the Psalms are met with,
besides the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Com-
mandments, the Creed, and quotations from
different books of the Bible.

Bush embroidery

Bush 11

The panels are generally made in shapes to fit
the backs, seats, and sides of settees and chairs,
and there are sometimes also square pieces
for cushions. The work is usually in wools,
with silks for the high lights, on coarse linen
or canvas. The favourite designs are land-
scapes, with shepherds and shepherdesses or
other figures. Sometimes the armorial bear-
ings of the family are represented, and occa-
sionally a vase of flowers or some such
ornament takes the principal place. It is
not unusual to find on these panels the name
of the worker and the date. An embroidery
in the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 269,
1893, see Plate 59) represents a vase of
flowers in colours, the ground being covered
all over with a diaper pattern in cream-
white silk. Underneath the basket is worked
the name ELIZABETH RVSSELL, with
the date 1730. This panel may have been
intended for a cushion-cover.

Bush embroidery design

Bush 13

It is a linen coverlet, quilted with white
thread and embroidered with coloured silks.
One of the border compartments contains a
shield of arms with the initials E S and the
date 1703; in the others are such designs as
the following : a griffin, a lion, a horse, a
standing figure, a mermaid, a merman, a
castle, a three-masted ship, a camel, a hound,
rabbits, a duck and other birds, and fishes.

Worsted work for large coverlets and
hangings survives the seventeenth century,
but the designs are of a different character.
The cover partly reproduced in colour
(Plate D) belongs to the best type of the
earlier half of the century. In other
examples the stems are arranged in a less
ordered manner, and run over the whole field.

The use of silk for embroidery gradually
replaced that of worsteds, in the eighteenth
century, for these large pieces. There still
exist a great number worked in the former
material, sometimes on a linen ground, and at
other times on silk. The coverlet illustrated
in Plate 57 is on linen, the embroidery being
entirely in red and green silk. The honey-
suckle border is particularly effective. Some-
times gold thread was also used

Lotus Flowers embroidery design

Lotus Flowers

Even embroideries did not
escape the influence of the Celestial empire.
Gay birds, with tails resembling flames, like
the mythical Chinese phoenix, fly amid flowers
designed on Chinese models. This influence
gradually died out as the eighteenth century
advanced. The most noticeable change is
the increasing tendency to produce a de-
ceptive resemblance to nature there is less
of design and more of direct imitation.
Flowers are shaded to have the appearance
of relief, and embroidery encroaches on the
province of the painted picture.

Camelia embroidry design

Camelia 4

From this ground at regu-
lar intervals rise large trees whose trunks
generally assume a serpentine form. The
flowers of various kinds and large leaves
growing from the trunks are designed with
great boldness. Birds are frequently scat-
tered among the branches, which intertwine
so as to cover the whole upper part of the
hanging. It is probable that none of these
hangings are earlier than the middle of the
seventeenth century, and the greater part
belong to the latter half of that century.*
They are sometimes in sombre colours, green
being predominant. Occasionally a piece is
found worked entirely in shades of red.

In the later years of the century, large
numbers of embroideries were produced in
England chiefly small panels and articles
of costume worked only in yellow silk. The
designs are usually floral, the linen ground
being quilted in small diaper patterns. A
ground quilted in this way is sometimes worked
with sprays of flowers in bright colours.

Job by Mucha embroidery design

Job by Mucha

On each is repre-
sented part of an arcade supported by round
columns, with capitals of a foliated type.
Round the columns trail stems with large
flowers and leaves. Birds of gay plumage
are to be seen among the foliage, and on the
ground below are various animals, including
elephants, camels, a lion, a horse, hounds, a
goat, deer, foxes, sheep, rabbits, a squirrel,
a unicorn, and a dragon. The panels are of
great decorative value, and the large scale is
well suited to the purpose for which they
were designed.

Many large embroideries, used as hang-
ings, curtains, and valances, have survived
from the seventeenth century. They are
generally of linen, or a mixed material of
linen and cotton, worked with large patterns
in bright-coloured worsteds. The designs
may be classed in three varieties. Some
have isolated sprays of flowers at intervals
over the whole surface ; others are divided
into narrow upright panels by borders of
flowering stems, with a row of floral sprays
running down the middle of each panel

Vintage Woman embroidery design

Vintage Woman

The development of the sampler in the
following century will be referred to in the
next chapter.

Some embroideries of the seventeenth
century, designed on a far larger scale, remain
to be briefly described.

A few years ago there was discovered,
behind an accumulation of wallpapers in an
old house in Hatton Garden, a series of
hangings, of a remarkable character, probably
embroidered soon after the middle of the
seventeenth century. When the stripping
of the walls brought them to light, they were
so dirty as to be hardly recognizable ; but a
careful process of cleaning led to a very satis-
factory result. The hangings are six in
number, each measuring about 7 feet 9 inches
high by 4 feet wide. The canvas ground is
completely hidden by embroidery of coloured
wools in varied stitches.

Victorian Fashion embroidery design

Victorian Fashion 03

The work is generally in coloured silks, with a
few illustrations of cut and drawn work in
linen thread. Specimens of lettering are
added, as a rule, with perhaps the name of
the worker and the date of the production.

Many of the cut-work patterns resemble
Italian work of the time, giving rise to the
conjecture that some of the ruffs and falling
bands worn in this country may have been
the work of English needlewomen.

Raised work is not altogether wanting in
samplers, but it is usually employed in a
restrained manner. The sampler above men-
tioned, bearing the date 1643, is reproduced
in Plate 52. It illustrates both the floral
embroidery in silks, and the geometrical
openwork in white linen threads. Some-
times the sampler is devoted entirely to the
latter class of work. The name " Margreet
May," with the date 1654, occurs on one such
piece.* In another sampler, f dated 1666,
coloured silks alone are used

Medieval embroidery Pattern

Medieval Pattern

The box illustrated in Plate 50 is from
the collection of Lord Zouche.* The ground
is of cream-white satin, a material almost
invariably used. The figures are in extremely
high relief, and have suffered accordingly.
The subjects include the Visit of the Queen
of Sheba, the Judgment of Solomon, Susanna
surprised by the Elders, and the Sacrifice of
Isaac. The female figures round the slope
of the cover symbolize the five senses. Various
flowers and other designs are worked on the
drawers and compartments inside.

A mirror frame in the Victoria and Albert
Museum (No. 247, 1896) is unfinished, and
is more interesting in this condition as it
illustrates the method of procedure. The
whole design has been first outlined in ink
on the satin ; parts of the flat embroidery
have been then completed, and the relief work
has, in a few instances, been added. There
is at the Guildhall Museum in London, an
embroidered panel also unfinished, the outline
of the whole design having been similarly
traced in black. It is said to have been
rescued from a house in Cheapside at the
time of the great fire of 1666.

Embroidery Pattern in Mucha Style

Pattern in Mucha Style 3

The box illustrated in Plate 50 is from
the collection of Lord Zouche.* The ground
is of cream-white satin, a material almost
invariably used. The figures are in extremely
high relief, and have suffered accordingly.
The subjects include the Visit of the Queen
of Sheba, the Judgment of Solomon, Susanna
surprised by the Elders, and the Sacrifice of
Isaac. The female figures round the slope
of the cover symbolize the five senses. Various
flowers and other designs are worked on the
drawers and compartments inside.

A mirror frame in the Victoria and Albert
Museum (No. 247, 1896) is unfinished, and
is more interesting in this condition as it
illustrates the method of procedure. The
whole design has been first outlined in ink
on the satin ; parts of the flat embroidery
have been then completed, and the relief work
has, in a few instances, been added. There
is at the Guildhall Museum in London, an
embroidered panel also unfinished, the outline
of the whole design having been similarly
traced in black. It is said to have been
rescued from a house in Cheapside at the
time of the great fire of 1666.

Mesopotamia embroidery Pattern

Mesopotamia Pattern

Among animals,
birds and insects are the lion, unicorn,
leopard, stag, camel, hound, sheep, squirrel,
rabbit, peacock, parrot, hoopoe, pheasant,
swan, robin, butterflies, caterpillars, snails,
and moths. It has been thought that special
meanings should be attached to some of the
smaller creatures, but it is probable that their
chief function was to fill small gaps in the
designs. The flowers and fruits are largely
those found in Elizabethan work, and include
roses, columbines, carnations, pansies, tulips,
lilies, daffodils, honeysuckle, apples, pears,
strawberries, nuts, and acorns. The scenes
generally have landscape backgrounds with
castles, houses, tents, mounds, rockeries,
wells, fountains, and fishponds. Clouds and
smoke are in full force; the sun and moon
often shine together, and an angel frequently
hovers over the scene. As regards materials,
silk and metal threads are used ; pearls and
beads often enrich the designs, and pieces
of glass and mica fill subordinate offices.
A picture is occasionally worked entirely in
glass beads of various colours.

Ancient Egyptian Anubis embroidery design

Ancient Egyptian Anubis 4

The favourite subjects are those connected
with the royal house of Stuart. Charles I.
and Henrietta Maria, and Charles II. and
his queen, are frequently pourtrayed. Even
when Biblical, mythical, or allegorical scenes
are represented, the principal figures often
take the likenesses of these royal personages.
The work is aristocratic and royalist through-
out. The shepherd playing the pipes, and
the shepherdess with her crook, are dressed
in the fashionable costume of the time. The
following are the principal among Biblical
subjects : Adam and Eve in the Garden,
Abraham entertaining the Angels, Abraham
and Hagar, the Offering of Isaac, Isaac and
Rebekah, Joseph and Potiphar's wife, Moses
found among the bulrushes, David and
Abigail, David and Bathsheba, the Judgment
of Solomon, the Visit of the Queen of Sheba,
Jehu and Jezebel, Esther and Ahasuerus,
Susanna and the Elders, and the Daughter
of Herodias before Herod. The favourite
classical subjects are the Judgment of Paris
and Orpheus charming the Beasts. Single
figures sometimes symbolize qualities and
virtues, such as Faith, Hope, Justice, Peace,
Time, the Five Senses, etc.

Egypt Pharaon embroidery design

Egypt Pharaon

Its most patent characteristic
is perhaps its grotesque ugliness ; but another,
which more effectually differentiates it, is
the high relief, produced by stuffing and
padding, introduced into many parts of the
design. Tent curtains, draperies, etc., are
so made that they can be pulled aside, the
arms of the figures are modelled in the round,
and rockeries are thrown into deep relief.
The work is, in fact, a mockery of sculpture,
and departs altogether from the legitimate
province of the needle. It is not considered
necessary to enter far into the history of this
branch of our subject. A summary of its
principal characteristics, and a short descrip-
tion of a few examples, is all that will be
attempted.* A large number are in the form
of caskets and work-boxes. Many of these
are fitted with cupboards, sliding drawers,
and secret recesses, and provided with ink-
wells, glass bottles, and other requisites for
toilet and writing purposes. Mirror-frames
are frequently embroidered in this way.

Alien Head embroidery design

Alien Head

The scarf belonged to Charles I., who wore
it at the battle of Edgehill, and gave it after
the battle to Mr. Adam Hill of Spaldwick,
who rallied his troop of horse, and is said to
have thereby preserved the life of the king.*

Souvenirs of this king must have been
carefully treasured by the Royalist party. A
needlework portrait of Charles I.,f in a small
oval medallion, was formerly in the collection
of Lord Zouche. The king wears a white
falling collar, and has the ribbon of the Garter.
The portrait, entirely of silk embroidery, is
a work of great skill. It may be compared
with another representing his favourite, the
Duke of Buckingham, which adorns the cover
of a volume of " Bacon's Essays," given by
the author to the duke, and now in the
Bodleian Library at Oxford.

Bella and Edward (Twilight) embroidery design

Bella and Edward (Twilight)

The larger cushion, of the same style and period, has a pattern of
flowers, fruit, birds, and insects, in coloured
silks, on a canvas ground embroidered with
silver thread. The lady's jacket reproduced
in Plate 49 f belongs to a valuable collection
of costumes, worn by various members of
the Isham family of Lamport Hall. The
costumes range from the time of Elizabeth
to the end of the seventeenth century, and
form a unique collection. The jacket, which
is of pink silk, finds a place in this volume |
on account of the embroidery. The scrolling
pattern is formed by an outline of blue silk !
entwined with silver thread.

An embroidery of some historical interest
belonging to the next reign was presented
to the Victoria and Albert Museum by Sir
Edward Denny, Bart., together with other
things, in 1882 (see p. 77). It is a military
scarf,J such as may be seen in many portraits
of the seventeenth century, worn across the
cuirass and passing over one shoulder.

Thailand Dancer embroidery design

Thailand Dancer 13

A favourite device in the reign of James I.
is the obelisk or pyramid. It frequently
occurs in architecture, wood-carving and
silver-work, and sometimes it is to be seen in
embroideries of the period. A small canvas
panel in the Victoria and Albert Museum t
has a pyramid rising from a crown, with
rows of flowers between. In another piece,
a bag or purse,J the pyramids rest on
pedestals.

Small bags of this nature, generally square
or oblong, are frequently met with. Some
were intended to contain books ; others may
have been used for holding embroidery
materials and such articles. They generally
have a string for drawing the open side to-
gether. The usual ornament is a spray of
flowers. Such a bag is illustrated in Plate

Thailand embroidery Dancer

Thailand Dancer 07

Both sides are
broken up into small panels with a curious
combination of devices. On one side may
be seen a lady wearing a ruff, a mermaid, and
a man surrounded by stags and rabbits. On
the other are lions, unicorns, a rose, a crown
and the letters I R (Jacobus Rex). There are
also clasped hands, fleurs-de-lys, honeysuckle,
pansies, acorns, strawberries and interlacing
and geometrical patterns, on embroidered
grounds of different colours.

A piece of work in the Maidstone Museum
belongs to the beginning of the century. It
is evidently intended to illustrate the progress
of the Reformation in England. King
Henry VIII. is seated in the middle with his
foot on the prostrate figure of a friar. On
his right stands his son and successor
Edward VI., crowned and holding a sceptre
in his right hand and a Bible in his left.
Beyond is Queen Mary holding a rosary, with
a dragon at her feet.

Floral embroidery Corner

Floral Corner 05

The characteristic patterns of Elizabethan
work survive her reign, but they gradually
degenerate into a stiffness and sameness
which at last finds expression in some of
the ugliest and most trivial work that ever
occupied the needle. We are obliged to take
the grotesque stump work, so popular in
its day, as the general expression of taste
among needlewomen of the seventeenth
century. It is a relief to turn from these to
the samplers which first found favour at this
period, and prove that better taste was not
altogether wanting. Many of the latter are
of excellent design and evince considerable
technical skill. Designs on a larger scale,
for curtains, hangings, etc., are sometimes
boldly drawn, and effective when put to their
proper use.

Border embroidery design

Border

The characteristic patterns of Elizabethan
work survive her reign, but they gradually
degenerate into a stiffness and sameness
which at last finds expression in some of
the ugliest and most trivial work that ever
occupied the needle. We are obliged to take
the grotesque stump work, so popular in
its day, as the general expression of taste
among needlewomen of the seventeenth
century. It is a relief to turn from these to
the samplers which first found favour at this
period, and prove that better taste was not
altogether wanting. Many of the latter are
of excellent design and evince considerable
technical skill. Designs on a larger scale,
for curtains, hangings, etc., are sometimes
boldly drawn, and effective when put to their
proper use.

Art Nouveau Border embroidery design

Art Nouveau Border 43

The members received much employment for
ceremonial and festive occasions. By the
time of Charles I. the company seems to
have fallen upon evil days. A petition was
presented to that monarch in 1634 pleading
that " trade was then so much decayed and
grown out of use, that a greater part of the
company, for want of employment, were . . .
much impoverished." The company still
exists, but in common with most of the other
livery companies of London, it has gradually
become dissociated from the work for which
it was incorporated.*

* See Hazlitt's " Livery Companies of the City of
London." The company has lately given a stimulus to
the embroiderer's art by holding competitive exhibitions of
needlework and offering prizes (see The Art Workers'
Quarterly, vol. ii. p. 103.)

Thailand Style Border embroidery design

Thailand Style Border 07

One of the larger embroideries at Hard-
wick, worked on canvas in coloured silks
and silver-gilt thread (Plate 46), bears in
the middle the arms of Talbot impaling
Hardwick, surrounded by the Garter. The
armorial devices in the corners are as fol-
lows : (i) a shield, Talbot impaling Hardwick,
within a wreath having the initials E.S.,
G.S. ; (2) The Hardwick crest, a stag trip-
ping, with initials E.S.; (3) the Talbot badge,
a Talbot dog, with initials G.S. ; (4) the
Cavendish crest (an intertwined serpent) sur-
rounded by the motto CAVENDO TVTVS,
still borne by the Dukes of Devonshire.
The complicated heraldry of this piece is
explained by the short biographical reference
to Elizabeth of Hardwick (p. 82).

This description of Elizabethan embroidery
may be closed by a short reference to the
Broderers' Company, incorporated by the
queen three years after her accession to
the throne. The company, however, is men-
tioned at an earlier period, and it was pro-
bably in existence three centuries before.

Floral Border embroidery design

Floral Border 17

The design, too, composed of the English
rose, the Scotch thistle, and the French lily,
tends to strengthen the theory that we have
here an actual example of the queen's handi-
work (Plate 43). The small subjects in the
ovals may have' been copied from some illus-
trated book of fables. There is another panel
belonging to the same set.

If these be the work of the Queen of
Scots, there are others which have an un-
doubted connection with her jailer. A set
of small velvet panels bears, besides various
symbolic devices, the initials E. S. (Elizabeth
Shrewsbury) and the date 1590.

Two other panels of appliqud work on
red velvet, with designs of scrollwork inter-
laced with flowering stems have, in one case,
the same initials ensigned with a coronet
(Plate 44), and, in the other, a stag tripping,
the crest of Hardwick (Plate 45).

Floral embroidery Border

Floral Border 06

Hardwick is one of the many fine man-
sions erected by Elizabeth, Countess of
Shrewsbury, the famous " Bess of Hard-
wick." Within, it is full of the memorials
of this remarkable woman, and of another
who claims a higher place in history, the
ill-fated Queen of Scots. Elizabeth was the
daughter of John Hardwick, and was born
in the year 1518. She was married succes-
sively to John Barlow, Sir William Caven-
dish,* Sir William St. Loe, and George
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. Shortly after
this last marriage, the custody of Mary Queen
of Scots was confided to the earl by Elizabeth.

Mary is well known to have been an
expert needlewoman, and the tradition that
some of the embroideries now at Hardwick
are her handiwork, is corroborated by the
examples themselves. The mansion was not
completed until s after 1590, and consequently
could never have been her prison-house ; but
it replaced an older mansion, the ruins of
which are still standing hard by.

Vintage embroidery Border

Vintage Border 7

Another class of embroidery, requiring
a great deal of time and patience for its
execution, found favour in the reign of
Elizabeth, and, with certain modifications,
has never since quite lost its popularity.
It is known in France as " petit point," a
term for which there is no satisfactory
English equivalent. The work is usually in
wools and silks of various colours on a canvas
or coarse linen ground, which is entirely
hidden by the needlework. The effect pro-
duced somewhat resembles that of a tapestry,
although the dimensions are generally small,
and the stitching is fine (Plate 41).*

It is not possible to enter, to any extent,
into the attractive subject of needlework as
associated with the mansions and manor-
houses of England. Some of these are well
known to contain embroideries which have
been associated with them and their occu-
pants for many generations.

Celtic Cross

Celtic Cross

A very considerable number of caps and
head-dresses worked in this way are still
existing. The caps are almost invariably of
rounded form, with turned-up edges trimmed
with gold lace. There are several in the
museum at South Kensington, including one
from the collection of Lord Zouche, and two
from that of Sir Thomas Isham of Lamport
Hall. The two latter (Plate 40) may belong
to the early part of Elizabeth's reign. The
ladies' head-dresses are commonly of a
hooded shape, drawn together by a string
at the back (Plate 40). The embroidery is
sometimes in black alone, but oftener the
stems are of plaited gold thread. It seems
probable that these caps did not go entirely
out of fashion until the reign of Charles I.
Black was not always the colour chosen. A
cap of the same form, with a pattern of roses,
pansies, and strawberries in colours, the stems
in gold, is in the museum (No. 2016, 1899).

Several private collections contain ex-
amples of black work of an earlier period,
that of Henry VIII. Such work is also
illustrated in portraits of his reign.

Celtic Lion embroidery Pattern

Celtic Pattern 15

The jacket was given by William IV. to
the Viscountess Falkland, wife of the tenth
viscount. It is recorded to have belonged to
Queen Elizabeth. A large coverlet and a
pillow-cover (Plate 37) of " black work," also
belonging to the Viscount Falkland, may
perhaps date from a little earlier in the same
century. Each has a running pattern of vine-
stems, the large leaves being filled with tiny
diaper patterns. An embroidery of a similar
class has lately been acquired by the Victoria
and Albert Museum (No. 252, 1902). The
panels are shaped to form the parts of a
tunic, which has never been made up (Plate
38). The pattern is almost entirely floral ;
it consists of columbines, pansies, acorns,
filberts, birds, butterflies, and insects. There
is a tradition that this work was done by
Mary, the daughter of Sir Henry Pierrepont
and sister of the Earl of Kingston, who was
married to Fulk Cartwright of Ossington in
1606.

Celtic embroidery Pattern

Celtic Pattern 05

The jacket or tunic of " black work "
belonging to the Viscount Falkland has
already been mentioned. By his permission
it is illustrated in this volume (Plate 35). It
is of linen, the embroidery being entirely in
black silk. Amid characteristic floral work
of the period are a number of devices of
a quaint nature. A little flying-fish, which
has leaped out of the water in order to avoid
the gaping mouth of a large fish below, is
attacked by a sea-bird from above ; a man of
Herculean type, astride a crocodile, holds a
writhing serpent in each hand. Other sub-
jects are Actaeon devoured by his hounds,
Bacchus beating a drum, a man on a lion, a
stag pierced by an arrow, another pursued by
a hound, a pelican in her piety, prancing horses,
a camel, an elephant, a sea-horse, unicorns,
monkeys, foxes, squirrels, birds, and fishes.

Rosette embroidery

Rosette 7

Tradition assigns an earlier origin to another
pair, presented, together with other works of
art associated with the Denny family, by Sir
Edward Denny, Bart., to the Victoria and
Albert Museum in 1882. They are of leather,
with white satin gauntlets elaborately em-
broidered and enriched with numerous seed-
pearls. It is believed that they are the gloves
recorded to have been given by Henry VIII.
to Sir Anthony Denny, who was successively
Groom of the Stole, a Privy Councillor, and
an Executor of the King, and afterwards
one of the guardians of the young king
Edward VI. The design, however, seems to
point to a later origin, and it is perhaps more
likely that they are the pair given by James I.
to Sir Edward Denny (afterwards Earl of
Norwich), who, as Sheriff of Hertfordshire,
received the king during his journey from
Scotland.

A pair of mittens (Plate 34) of crimson
velvet, with embroidered satin gauntlets, was
given by Queen Elizabeth to her Maid of
Honour, Margaret Edgcumbe, wife of Sir Ed.
Denny, Knt. Banneret. The leather glove,
illustrated in the same plate, is of early
seventeenth century yyork.

Rosette embroidery design

Rosette 10



The large cream -white satin coverlet*
from Ireland, partly reproduced in Plate 42,
is an important example of late Elizabethan
work. It has a deep floral border, and a
pattern of floral sprays in the middle. The
materials used for the embroidery are silver-
gilt and silver thread and silks of various
colours. A practice not altogether commend-
able is exemplified here. Some of the
petals of the flowers have been separately
worked, and afterwards fixed to the satin by
one edge only, so as to stand away from the
ground. Such devices are not infrequently
found in Elizabethan work. It is doubtful
whether they should be employed at all. At
any rate, we may condemn without hesitation
the exaggeration to which the practice was
carried in the succeeding period.